Health & Safety

Information Bulletins · HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis



HIV/AIDS and Hepatitis





Immunization (I) & Treatment (T)

viral infection of liver

  • fecal contamination of food or water

  • improper hygiene (e.g. hand washing after bowel movement)
  • blood transfusion
  • jaundice, yellowing of skin, eyes & urine

  • weakness, fatigue

  • headache, fever, nausea & diarrhea

  • stomach cramps

  • loss of appetite

(detected by blood test)

  • permanent damage rare

I= 2 shot vaccine (protection up to 30 years)

T= 1 shot vaccine
(gamma globulin)

viral infection of liver
highly contagious

  • virus survives days in open air & on surfaces

  • sexual contact

  • blood & other body fluids (e.g. open wounds, biting/saliva)

  • contaminated needles, razors, toothbrushes

  • mother to baby (birth)

  • breast milk
  • few symptoms - can be similar to HEP A

  • often skin rash

  • carriers: 5-10 % of population, 90% are children

(detected by blood test)

  • may lead to liver disease or cancer

  • some deaths

I= 3 shot vaccine over 6 months (highly but not completely effective; some people medically unable to be vaccinated; minor side effects for some people)

T= no vaccine

viral infection of liver
(discovered in 1989)

  • blood to blood contact

  • open wound

  • contaminated needles, toothbrushes, razors

  • contaminated blood transfusions (before 1990)

  • bites

  • sexual contact

  • mother to baby (birth)
  • up to 20 years to develop symptoms

  • few symptoms - can be similar to HEP A or B

  • fatigue, weight loss

  • 80% becomes carriers

  • 30% develop HEP C

(detected by blood test)


  • cirrhosis

  • chronic liver disease

  • some deaths

I= no vaccine

T= no vaccine

Virus able to mutate against and evade antiviral agents


(discovered in 1977)

  • exposure to contaminated needles

  • household transmission can occur
  • identical to symptoms of HEP B

  • jaundice

  • tiredness

  • loss of appetite

  • pain in stomach area
  • same as HEP B

no vaccines
available for HEP D but vaccination for HEP B will protect against HEP D


(first identified in 1983)

  • exposure to water and food products contaminated with HEP E virus (HEV)

  • mother to newborn child transmission is likely

  • no evidence of transmission through sharing personal items contaminated with the virus

  • no evidence of transmission through sexual activities
  • jaundice

  • loss of appetite

  • pain in stomach area

  • inflammation of the liver
  • most individuals recover within 1 to 6 months

no treatment for HEV as it is an illness that the body can usually fight off naturally

viral infection of white blood cells
(T cells)

  • virus survives up to 2-3 hours in open air

  • any form of sexual intercourse

  • blood & body fluids (e.g. saliva, lymph, seminal, spina, cerebral fluid)

  • contaminated needles

  • blood transfusions

  • pregnant women to fetus

  • mother to baby during birth

  • breast milk

Infected Stage:

  • weight loss

  • impaired development

  • diarrhea

  • nervous system & lung problems

  • open skin legions that take longer than usual to heal

  • frequent common infections
    (detected by blood test)

Positive Stage:

  • antibodies indicate infection
    (detected by blood test)
  • develops into positive stage
  • develops into AIDS in short time

I= no vaccine

T= no vaccine
(complex drug therapies)


break down of immune system

  • final stage in HIV infection

  • only disease known to cross from blood to brain
  • does not kill but disrupts immune system so "opportunistic infections" cause death

  • brain dementia
    (detected by blood test)
  • death

I= no vaccine

T= no vaccine
(complex blood therapies, chemotherapy and "comforting" drugs)